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Tipu Sultan: How did the short Tipu Sultan defeat the British?

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Tipu Sultan – Tiger of Mysore Tipu Sultan was the ruler of Mysore. Tipu Sultan real name was Fateh Ali Khan. He is also known as Sultan Tipu.

The famous historian Colonel Mark Wilkes writes that Tipu Sultan was younger than his father Haider Ali. He was black. The eyes were big. He looked normal and wore light clothes and asked his roommates to do the same.

They were mostly seen riding horses. He considered horse riding to be great art and he had mastered it. He did not like traveling in a dolly.

A glimpse of Tipu Sultan’s personality can also be found in a book kept in the British Library, An Account of Tipu Sultan’s Court, the details of which were given by his secretary Muhammad Qasim to a British historian after his death.

It says that Tipu was of medium height, and his forehead was wide. He had gray eyes, a high nose, and a thin waist. His mustache was short and his beard was perfectly clean.

He has a painting in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London wearing a green turban.

It has a ruby ​​and a string of pearls. He is wearing a green robe with a lion-like striped waistband. A sword is hanging inside the red sheath in a belt on his arm.

Tipu Sultan history and Mysore Wars

Tipu Sultan

On February 14, 1799, 21,000 troops under General George Harris marched from Vellore to Mysore.

On March 20, a detachment of 16,000 soldiers joined him near Amber. It also included a contingent of 6,420 troops under General Stewart’s command near Connor. Together they invaded Tipu Sultan’s Saranga Patam fort.

The famous historian James Mill writes in his book The History of British India that “these were the same Tipu Sultans whose half of the empire was occupied by the British six years ago.

From the land they had left, they earned a little over Rs 10 million a year, while the total foreign exchange received by the British in India at that time was لاکھ 900,000.

Gradually, they besieged the fort of Saranga Patam and on May 3, 1799, attacked it with artillery and pierced its front wall.

Another historian, Lishington, writes in his book Life of Harris: “Although the hole was not very large, George Harris decided to send his troops inside the fort through it.” In fact, they had no choice.

His army was hungry. Harris later admitted to Captain Malcolm that the British guard at my tent had become so weak that he would fall if pushed.

On the night of May 3, about 5,000 soldiers, including about 3,000 British, hid in the trenches so that Tipu’s army would not find out about their activities. As the time for the attack approached, Mir Sadiq, the man who had betrayed Tipu Sultan, called back the soldiers under the pretext of paying their salaries.

Another historian, Mir Hussain Ali Khan Kirmani, in his book, History of Tipu Sultan, quotes Col. Mark Wilkes as saying, “Nadeem, a Tipu commander, raised the issue of salaries. So the soldiers stationed near the hole in the wall followed him. At that moment, the British attacked from behind.

Meanwhile, Saeed Ghaffar, a very loyal commander of Tipu, was killed by British artillery shells.

Kirmani writes that as soon as Ghaffar died, the treacherous soldiers from the fort started waving the white handkerchief of the British.

It was decided that when this was done, the British army would attack the fort. As soon as the signal was received, the British army started advancing towards the river bank which was only 100 yards away. The river was only 280 yards wide and had water up to the ankles and up to the waist.

The Traitors:

Major Alexander Allen writes in his book An Account of the Campaign in Mysore that “although the advancing British army could have been easily targeted by artillery from the fort.”

However, the British troops came out of the trenches and entered the fort wall through the hole in just seven minutes and managed to hoist the British flag.

The army advancing to the left facing severe difficulties from Tipu Sultan. Col. Dunlap, who led the contingent in a hand-to-hand confrontation with Tipu’s army, received a severe sword wound to the wrist. Tipu’s troops then managed to stop the columnist from advancing.

Tipu Sultan himself had joined the war to strengthen his army. Dunlap was replaced by Lieutenant Farquhar. But they too soon died. On the morning of May 4, Tipu mounted his horse, inspected the hole in the fort wall, and ordered repairs. Then they went for a bath.

Kirmani writes that in the morning his astrologer had informed him that the day was not good for him. That is why they should stay with their army till evening. ”

After bathing, Tipu distributed money among the poor. He gave an elephant, a sack of sesame seeds, and two hundred rupees to a priest of Chenapatna.

Tipu gave the other Brahmins a black goat, a garment made of black cloth, and ninety rupees besides a vessel full of oil. Earlier, he saw his shadow in the oil in an iron pot. His astrologer had said that doing so would avert the trouble that would come upon him.

He returned to the palace and ate dinner. As the meal began, they received word of the death of their commander, Saeed Ghaffar. Ghaffar was leading an army guarding the western end of the fort.

Lt. Col. Alexander Bateson writes in his book A View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tipu Sultan:

He washed his hands and mounted his horse and headed for the hole in the wall. But even before their arrival, the British had hoisted their flag there and started moving towards other parts of the fort.

Tipu Sultan in War Field

In this battle, Tipu fought most of his battles on foot, as did ordinary soldiers.

But when the courage of their soldiers began to wane, they mounted their horses and tried to encourage them. ”

“If Tipu wanted, he could have run away from the battlefield,” writes Mark Wilkes. At that time the commander of the fort Mir Nadeem was standing on the roof of the gate of the fort but he did not pay any attention to his sultan.

As Tipu approached the inner gate of the fort, a bullet struck him in the left chest. His horse was also killed. His comrades tried to take him out of the battlefield on a dolly but failed. Because by then there was a pile of corpses.

Major Alexander writes: “At that time his bodyguard Raja Khan advised him to tell the British but Tipu did not approve. He chose the path of death instead of being captured by the British.

About Tipu Sultan’s last moments, Bateson writes, “Then some British soldiers entered the inner gate of the fort.” One of them tried to snatch Tipu’s sword belt. By then, Tipu had almost fainted due to heavy bleeding. Even then, they attacked the soldier with their swords.

He then struck another British soldier on the head with the same sword. Meanwhile, another British soldier attacked Tipu. He wanted to snatch the jewels and the sword from them. At the time, he could not see who had drawn the sword.

Tipu Sultan’s Martyrdom

Tipu Sultan

The British did not know that Tipu Sultan had died. They went inside the palace to look for them. It turned out that Tipu was not there.

A Tipu general took them to the spot where Tipu had fallen. There were corpses and wounded soldiers lying around.

In the light of the torch, Tipu Sultan’s dolly appeared. Below him, Tipu’s bodyguard Raja Khan was lying injured. He pointed to where Tipu had fallen.

Major Allen later wrote, “When Tipu’s body was brought before us, his eyes were open.” His body was so hot that for a moment Colonel Wellesley and I felt as if he were not alive.

But when we saw their pulse and laid our hands on our hearts, our doubts were dispelled. He had three wounds on his body and one on his forehead. A bullet entered his right ear and sank into his left cheek.

He was dressed in the finest white linen, with a silk knot wrapped around his waist. She had no turban on her head and looked as if she had fallen during the war.

There were no ornaments on the body except for one arm. The bracelet was actually a silver talisman with something written in Arabic and Persian.

General Baird ordered Tipu’s body to be placed in his dolly. A message was sent to the court that Tipu Sultan was no more in this world. His body was kept in his court all night.

The next evening, Tipu Sultan’s body left the palace. His body was carried by his personal staff. He was accompanied by four British companies.

According to documents kept in the UK’s National Library of Scotland, the Journal of the War with Tipu states that “Prince Abdul Khaliq was walking right behind his funeral.”

Behind him were important court officials. The streets along which the funeral procession passed were crowded on both sides. People were lying on the ground paying homage to the funeral.

People were crying out loud. He was buried in Lal Bagh next to the grave of his father Haider Ali.

After that, five thousand rupees were distributed to the participants of Tipu Sultan’s funeral. “As the night wore on, the atmosphere became more and more gloomy, with strong winds and thunderstorms,” ​​Beatson wrote. Two British soldiers were killed and several others were injured in the storm.

Sword of Tipu Sultan

After the death of Tipu Sultan, Saranga Patam was badly looted by the British troops.

Yet the throne of Tipu, the silver seat on the elephant, the gold and silver plates, the locks and swords inlaid with jewels, the expensive carpets, the finest silk fabrics, and twenty boxes full of jewels did not fall into the hands of ordinary soldiers.

No damage was done to Tipu’s excellent library, which contained more than 2,000 books on history, science, and hadith in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and Hindi.

A diamond-shaped star and Tipu’s sword were presented to Valles Lee by the British Army. Major Alexander Allen wrote in his book, An Account of the Campaign in Mysore, that Harris presented Tipu’s other sword to Baird, and the lion’s head, attached to the Sultan’s throne, was sent to Windsor Castle’s treasury.

One by one the swords of Tipu Sultan and Morari Rao were sent to Lord Cornwallis as a memento. Until then, the British had not encountered a king like Tipu in India. After Tipu, there was no one left to challenge the British in the war.

Pat Abir, a British journalist, wrote in his book Rise and Progress of British Power in India that “after the defeat of Tipu, the whole kingdom of the East fell at our feet.” Tipu Sultan tomb is situated in Sringapatna.   Tipu Sultan history in Urdu

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